the mining operation. Design of the final pit limit is thus governed not only by the ore grade distribution and the production costs, but also by the overall rock mass strength and stability. The potential for failure must be assessed for given mining layouts and incorporated into the design of the ultimate pit.
Welcome back to the surface mining model. In the previous topic, we learned about different types of surface mining operations, about equipment, about different methods that are commonly used to extract coal or different ore deposits. Its not difficult to understand that mining is one of the most dangerous working environments in the world and in this topic, we will go through some of the ...
Nanda, N.K. , Optimization of mine production system through operation research techniques, 19 th World Mining Congress,New Delhi, November, pp.583 595. Pal Roy, P. , Terms and parameters influencing mine and ground excavations, Rock blasting effects and operations, pp. 17 22, ii
Open pit mining, also known as open cast or open cut mining, is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open air pit, sometimes known as a borrow. This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunnelling into the earth, such as long wall mining. Open pit mines are used ...
A surface mine contains pits with mineral endowed rock . We extract ore that lies within the upper layer of the earth, from surface mines . This ore can include metals such as iron, copper, coal and gold. There are several methods of surface mining, including open pit, stripping, dredging and mountain top removal.
Open pit and open cast methods employ a conventional mining cycle of operations to extract minerals: rock breakage is usually accomplished by drilling and blasting for consolidated materials and by ripping or direct removal by excavators for unconsolidated
The open pit or open cast mining method is the obvious choice for a property with wide area of mineralization exposed or exists close to the surface and continues to greater depth. The open pit is opening the orebody from the surface by separate removal of ore and associated waste rocks.
Fig 1 A typical open pit iron ore mine. On the basis of mining methods, iron ore mining can be broadly divided into two categories namely manual mining and mechanized mining. Large iron ore mines are mechanized mines while manual mining methods are employed in the small mines. Manual mining method is normally to float ores.